Vodka is an alcoholic beverage made of distilled water and demineralized and a maximum of distilled ethanol, sometimes mixed with fruit (strawberry, cherry, lemon, …) or with spices (peppers) to give it a better taste then filtered by charcoal filters to make it more pure. It has between 38,5 and 97 degrees (Vodka Spirytus) of alcohol (usually 40 in commerce and may be more for vodka homemade, depending on dosage and choices of producers).
Ethanol is extracted by distillation commodities: fruits, vegetables, wheat, starch, barley, buckwheat, chestnuts, sugar, rice and even from wood! The distillation takes place in a still (Arabic al-Ambic meaning distillation vessel). There are different kinds of still: traditional alembic alembic reflux column alembic fractionator Amazing and still is a still homemade everyone.
This simple yet fresh and quirky mixture paved the way for the reputation of vodka as a drink of choice at parties and other social gatherings. It is also the main reason why Vodka is considered a drink for the elite
History Of Vodka :
Vodka is not from Russia and Poland contrary to some assertions!
A prototype of vodka was produced in the eleventh century by a Persian physician named Ar-Razi was the first to extract ethanol by fermentation but the liquid was exclusively used in medicine as the Koran prohibits the consumption of alcohol.
In Europe the first distillation of sacchariferous liquid was made by the Italian monk-alchemist Valentius.
Vodka History In Russia :
vodka has appeared in the late fourteenth century. In 1386, the Consulate of Genoa (Genova port city in northern Italy) brought to Moscow the “first vodka” (“aqua vitae” – “living water”) and presented it to Prince Dmitry Donskoy in Russia .
Chemists of Provence (France) near Genoa used the Arab invention: the cucurbit to transform the alcohol grape must.
Thus Europe had born the “aqua vitae” all strong drink: brandy, cognac, whiskey, schnapps and the Russian Vodka.
Following the distillation of fermented mash of ending the volatile liquid was seen as a concentrate, the “spirit” of wine (Latin: spiritus vini), from which comes the modern name of the substance in several languages, including the Russian “спирт” (“spirt” – alcohol).
According to legend, around 1430 Isidor monk Tchudov Monastery located in the territory of the Kremlin, has created the recipe of the first Russian vodka. It was the author of the new alcoholic drink.
In 1533 was introduced the state monopoly for vodka production and sales in Russia.
In Russia, alcoholic beverages prepared with cereal alcohol have been long called “bread wine”.
Officially, the term “vodka” was established in the legislation, it appears first in the decree Empress Elizaveta Petrovna the published June 8, 1751. Then this term appears after almost 150 years in connection with the introduction of state monopoly on the production and sale of vodka.
In 1789, the chemist from St. Petersburg Toviy Lovits proposed to use charcoal to clean vodka as empyreumatic oils.
On January 31, 1865, Dmitriy Mendeleev presented his doctoral thesis “On the connection of alcohol with water” theory of dedicated solutions based on studies of alcohol-water solution. The views on the conclusions of this thesis separate. Some think that in this dissertation Mendeleev proposed an alcohol content in vodka of 40 °.
According to the museum of vodka in Moscow, Mendeleev was the best vodka headlined at 38 ° but then taxes are calculated on the alcohol content, the title of which was kept 40 ° to facilitate the task Tax Services.
However after I. Dmitriev, director of Mendeleev’s archive-museum, Dmitriy Mendeleev was not interested at all concentrations of alcohol solutions characteristic for vodka and did not attempt to define the optimal titration vodka. He studied solutions with higher concentrations.
Moreover Mendeleev did not drink vodka, he preferred dry wine. He said that vodka is a source of resources for the public treasury of the state.
In 1894, the Russian government has patented vodka titrated to 40 ° and filtered by charcoal as national vodka called “Московская особенная” (From Moscow the special).
In 1914, Tsar Nicolas II has banned alcohol during the period of the war. From December 1917, the Soviet government extended the ban on the production and sale of alcohol during the First World War. The ban was lifted in early 1924.
Attack of Western countries against the Russian vodka :
The question who owns the production of vodka never had reason to be raised over the past centuries and today if it was not part of a state importance. Thus in autumn 1977 the European countries and the US have caused a priority matter in the production of vodka, removing the priority of the USSR, and discriminating against boycotting Soviet vodka brands. Suit simultaneously threatening to deprive “Союзплодоимпорт” (vodka importer) the right to sell and advertise for this commodity as ‘vodka’, as a series of US companies began to claim the rights to use the name “vodka “only for their goods so called because they started production earlier than Soviet companies.
At the beginning these claims were not taken seriously by Soviet foreign trade organizations, because competing firms indicated that the production of vodka in the USSR began after August 26, 1923 according to the decree and СНК ЦИК of the USSR , while in them so-called well in advance, in 1918-1921. Knowing that during these years, in the countries of Europe and the US were built several water spirits companies by former Russian manufacturers who fled Soviet Russia.
But although the Soviet government actually banned the production of vodka from December 1917 and have continued in 1924, 6 years old, he was legally and historically very easy to prove that, first the Soviet government merely extended the previous royal government ban on the production and trade of vodka during the first world war it was enough just to prove the existence of the prohibition by the previous government; and secondly its proved just the succession of state monopoly and its rights to stop and start making according to his wish. As a result the date of August 26, 1923 had nothing to do with the start of production of vodka in the USSR and the priority of the use of the original name “vodka” since this name appeared with the non-renewal production after 1923, but because of the invention of vodka in Russia at the time of the Middle Ages. So the countries claiming the exclusive use of the name “vodka” on their territory, must present concrete and convincing information proving an earlier start date vodka production on their territory. Thus all the European and American brands and companies of Russian emigrants as Smirnoff, Eristoff, Gorbachev, Keglevitch and others were forced to remove their claims and could now only defend himself with advertising touting the quality of their brand.
The second attack :
As the first attack was relatively easy to counter, this has led to that “Союзплодоимпорт” found itself unprepared to face the second attack of the monopoly of vodka and PNR perceived as a stab in the back. It stated that in Poland vodka was manufactured and produced before in the Russian Empire and then sell these goods and do the pub on the market with the name “vodka” was allowed as Poland which produced the “Wodka Wyborowa,” “Kristall” together “Московская особая”, “Столичная” and others who lost the right to be called vodka and had to find other names.
“Союзплодоимпорт” did not give any serious significance to this threat because it seemed quite absurd that the friendly neighbor Poland imposes what these paradoxical requirements. It looked like a bad joke because everyone knows the vodka as a Russian national drink and formerly produced in Russia and therefore it can not lose like that its historical and national name at the whim of the West.
But the laws of the capitalist market are severe, they do not take into account the traditions. They demand a formal and convincing evidence in documentary form, legal or historical establishing an invention date of first export or vodka production. This is the date that gives the right to define the priority of the owner to the invention and production.
The Europeans had all set their date of drinks: cognac: 1334 English Whisky: 1485, Scotch whiskey: 1490-1494, German schnapps: 1520-1522.
So no exception for vodka. The USSR and Poland must provide their date.
This was the situation at the beginning of 1978, less than a year after the first attack.
“Союзплодоимпорт” then addressed the Institute of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the VNII of alcohol products. In spring 1979, the study was written.
The study was completely dedicated to the research of the start date of production of vodka and as there was no tax documentary sources were analyzed terminology distillation and studied the meaning of the term ‘vodka’ and the characters of the historical conditions in which the product may have appeared.
It may be noted in this book the author answers all questions leaving no possible room for doubt on the arguments proposed, not as a result provide additional answers to the jury. The author has considered everything a player would have thought when reading the book.
This study does not answer the question as to the date but also why it happened exactly at that time and not before or after. She also answered the question on the production of spirits in neighboring countries: Ukraine, Poland, Sweden, Germany. The dates correspond to those which had been given other countries the jury.
As for Poland, its representatives were unable to prove that “Gorzalka” (the first name of vodka in Poland) was created before the mid-sixteenth century. Moreover the Russian perpetrator caused data moving date of birth of vodka in the Polish kingdom (actually on the territory of present-day Ukraine) a decade before that date, that is to say, in 1540, but it is still widely later than the date of creation of vodka in Russia.
In 1982, the international jury has undoubtedly set the priority of the creation of the USSR vodka as Russian original alcoholic beverage and the exclusive right to advertising on the world market.
Interesting facts :
* The word vodka is the diminutive of the Russian word “вода” (water), “водочка”, “водичка”, …
* Vodka is the cleanest drinking alcoholic beverages in the world, with the lowest content empyreumatic oils.
* The vodka is usually composed of 40% alcohol to 60% water.
* To avoid being drunk at a party one should drink 2-3 hours before 50g of vodka.
* In 100 grams of vodka there is 235 calories.
* There is no vodka drinks.
* The first place where you could drink vodka was created in Moscow in 1533.
* There is a museum of vodka in Moscow was in St. Petersburg before 2006.
* In 1977 Poland tried to claim rights on vodka but a Russian historian has shown that vodka appeared in Russia one century before in Poland and therefore the international jury rejected the claims of the latter.
* In Russia we drink the cul-dry vodka and then we sniff bread or pickles malossol to get the taste.
* By putting vodka in the freezer, the taste of vodka improves.
* The vodka does not freeze in the freezer because the melting temperature (that is to say when its becomes solid) vodka (ethanol) is -114.4 ° C and in the freezer did -18 ° C.